Doctoral Candidate Helen Nichols and Professor Swanberg published in the Journal of the Society for

Doctoral Candidate Helen Nichols and Professor Jennifer Swanberg have a new paper published in the Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research that addresses the measurement of work-life conflict (WLC) among low-wage workers in the U.S.

The study aims were to (a) evaluate a bidirectional WLC scale that uses established measurement items to determine its applicability among low-wage workers using a national data set, and to (b) test the consistency and validity of this scale using a second nationally representative sample of low-wage workers. Nichols and Swanberg conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using 2 samples of low-wage workers from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, a nationally representative sample of the U.S. workforce. Analyses were limited to hourly, nonexempt workers who were employed in low-wage jobs that paid less than $31,800 per year or $15.29 per hour (N = 672). Using a bidirectional WLC scale, the 2-factor model showed excellent fit to the data. However, areas of misfit were still present and establish the need for further research to fully understand the meaning of WLC for low-wage workers. Model results, implications for practice, and areas for future research are discussed. More details can be found at


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